|Title||Reproductive output and larval survival of American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) from a population at the northern distributional limit|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Diyes CP, Dergousoff SJ, Yunik ME, Chilton NB|
|Journal||Exp Appl Acarol|
Female reproductive output and larval survival were determined for American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), from a recently established population near the northern distributional limit in Saskatchewan (Canada). Oviposition took 10-21 days at 25 °C and 95% relative humidity (RH). Temperature and relative humidity had a marked effect on egg development time and larval survival. Unfed larvae survived more than 100 days at 32 °C (with 95% RH) and 25 and 5 °C (with ≥ 85% RH). However, survival times declined markedly at lower relative humidities. In addition, 95% of the larvae placed in field enclosures survived for 140 days over winter during which they were exposed to sub-zero temperatures and 95-100% RH, while covered with snow. The median survival times (LT50) of unfed larvae submerged underwater was 68 days. These results show that D. variabilis larvae in populations near the periphery of the northern distributional limit are adapted to cope with sub-zero temperatures in winter, and can survive in the temporary pools of water created by the spring snow melt.