Human Tick-Borne Diseases and Advances in Anti-Tick Vaccine Approaches: A Comprehensive Review

TitleHuman Tick-Borne Diseases and Advances in Anti-Tick Vaccine Approaches: A Comprehensive Review
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
JournalVaccines (Basel)
Date Published01/2024
AuthorsNepveu-Traversy ME, Fausther-Bovendo H, Babuadze GG
Keywordsanti-tick vaccine; emerging infectious disease; emerging viruses; tick-borne disease; tick-borne pathogen; vaccine development

This comprehensive review explores the field of anti-tick vaccines, addressing their significance in combating tick-borne diseases of public health concern. The main objectives are to provide a brief epidemiology of diseases affecting humans and a thorough understanding of tick biology, traditional tick control methods, the development and mechanisms of anti-tick vaccines, their efficacy in field applications, associated challenges, and future prospects. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) pose a significant and escalating threat to global health and the livestock industries due to the widespread distribution of ticks and the multitude of pathogens they transmit. Traditional tick control methods, such as acaricides and repellents, have limitations, including environmental concerns and the emergence of tick resistance. Anti-tick vaccines offer a promising alternative by targeting specific tick proteins crucial for feeding and pathogen transmission. Developing vaccines with antigens based on these essential proteins is likely to disrupt these processes. Indeed, anti-tick vaccines have shown efficacy in laboratory and field trials successfully implemented in livestock, reducing the prevalence of TBDs. However, some challenges still remain, including vaccine efficacy on different hosts, polymorphisms in ticks of the same species, and the economic considerations of adopting large-scale vaccine strategies. Emerging technologies and approaches hold promise for improving anti-tick vaccine development and expanding their impact on public health and agriculture.