|Title||Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium) essential oil and main components as potential repellents and acaricides against Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Journal||Exp Appl Acarol|
|Authors||Pickett LJ, Amiro M, Hawboldt C, Faraone N|
Repellent and acaricidal activities of essential oils (EO) extracted from common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) and main chemical components were evaluated against Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor variabilis adult ticks and nymphs. Flowers and leaves were collected from two locations, Harvest Moon trail (HMT) and Port Williams (PW) in Nova Scotia (Canada), and EO were extracted via hydro-distillation. Samples were analyzed using GC-MS, and differences in chemical composition and quantity of compounds detected were reported in relation to the collection site and plant parts. EO were both rich in germacrene D (HMT EO 21.5 ± 1.31% wt; PW EO 25.5 ± 0.76% wt); however, HMT flower EO has a higher concentration of camphor (9.9 ± 0.08% wt) compared to PW flower EO (3.0 ± 0.01% wt). Significant acaricidal activity was reported against I. scapularis adult ticks, particularly for HMT flower EO with a LD50 of 2.4% v/v (95% confidence interval = 1.74-3.35) at 24 h post-exposure. Germacrene D had the lowest LD50 of 2.0% v/v (95% CI 1.45-2.58) among the four compounds after 7 days. No significant acaricidal effect was observed on D. variabilis adult ticks. Yarrow PW flower EO exerted repellent activity towards I. scapularis nymphs (100% repellency up to 30 min); however, repellency significantly declined over time. Yarrow EO exert promising acaricidal and repellent properties, that may be used to manage Ixodes ticks and the diseases they vector.